G protein type for respective receptors

KISS and KICK till you’re SICK of SEX” (QISS and QIQ till you’re SIQ of SQS):

This gives the G-protein type (Gq, Gi, or Gs) for all the receptors. Receptors are in alphabetical order:

  • alpha1=Q
  • alpha2=I
  • beta1=S
  • beta3=S
  • M1=Q
  • M2=I
  • M3=Q
  • D1=S
  • D2=I
  • H1=Q
  • H2=S
  • V1=Q
  • V2=S


Golgi complex: functions

“Golgi Distributes A SPAM“:

  • Distributes proteins and lipids from ER
  • Add mannose onto specific lysosome proteins
  • Sulfation of sugars and slected tyrosine
  • Proteoglycan assembly
  • Add O-oligosugars to serine and threnonine
  • Modify N-ologosugars on asparagine


Metabolic acidosis (normal anion-gap): causes

With hyperkalemia: RAISE K+:

  • RTA type 4
  • Aldosterone or mineralocorticord deficiency
  • Iatrogenic: NH4Cl, HCl
  • Stenosis”: obstructive uropathy
  • Early uremia


With hypokalemia: ReDUCE K+:

  • Renal TA type 1 and 2
  • Diarrhoea
  • Urine diversion into gut
  • Carbonate anhydrase inhibitor
  • Ex-hyperventilation


Metabolism sites

“Use both arms to HUG“:

  • Heme synthesis
  • Urea cycle
  • Gluconeogenesis

These reactions occur in both cytoplasm and mitochondria.


Na/K pump action

(Sing loudly to the chorus of “Kiss Him Goodbye”): “NaNaNa — outNaNaNa — outKKgoes…inside!”

Action of pump is 3 Na out and 2 K in


Na/K pump: concentrations of Na vs. K on inside/outside of cell, pump action, number of molecules moved


There is a HIgh K concentration INside the cell.

From this can deduce that the Na/K pump pumps K into cell and Na out of cell.

Alternatively: When I was learning this pump (circa 1992), a band that was “in” was Kris Kross, and a band that was “out” was “Sha Na Na Na“:

So pump moves K K (2 K) in and Na Na Na (3 Na) out.

Sadly, as infectious as their debut album was, Kris Kross can really no longer be classed as “in”.


Na+/K+ pump: movement of ions and quantity

K+ and in each consist of characters, so so 2 K+ are pumped in.

Na+ and out each consist of characters, so 3 Na+ are pumped out.


 Tangier’s disease: hallmark

Tangierene tonsils”:

Hallmark is large orange tonsils.

Important clinical note: there is no increased risk of atherosclerosis, just like eating tangerenes.


Cell division

People Meet And Talk.”

  • Prophase
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase

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