Glycogen storage: Anderson’s (IV) vs. Cori’s (III) enzyme defect


Anderson’s=Branching enzyme.

Cori’s=Debranching enzyme.

Otherwise, can’t really distinguish clinically.


Glycogen storage: names of types I through VI

Viagra Pills Cause AMajor Hardon”:

  • Von Gierke’s
  • Pompe’s
  • Cori’s
  • Anderson’s
  • McArdle’s
  • Her’s

 Type 1 glycogen storage disease

Type = one (Von), ie Von Giereke’s disease

Glycolysis steps

Goodness Gracious, Father Franklin Did GBy Picking Pumpkins (to) Prepare Pies”:

  • Glucose
  • Glucose-6-P
  • Fructose-6-P
  • Fructose-1,6-diP
  • Dihydroxyacetone-P
  • Glyceraldehyde-P
  • 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate
  • 3-Phosphoglycerate
  • 2-Phosphoglycerate (to)
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate [PEP]
  • Pyruvate

‘Did’, ‘By’ and ‘Pies’ tell you the first part of those three: di-, bi-, and py-.

‘PrEPare’ tells location of PEP in the process.

Phosphorylation cascade: action during low glucose

“In the Phasted State, Phosphorylate”:

The phosphorylation cascade becomes active when blood glucose is low.

Citric acid cycle compounds

OCitric Acid IOf (course) A SiLly STupid Funny Molecule”:

  • Oxaloacetate
  • Citrate
  • Aconitate
  • Isocitrate
  • Oxalosuccinate
  • Alpha-ketoglutarate
  • SuccinyL-CoA
  • SuccinaTe
  • Fumarate
  • Malate

SilLy and sTupid used to differentiate succinyL and succinaTe

Citric acid cycle compounds

Can I Keep Selling Sex For Money, Officer?”:

  • Citrate
  • Isocitrate
  • alpha Ketogluterate
  • Succinyl CoA
  • Succinate
  • Fumerate
  • Malate
  • Oxaloacetate

Citric acid cycle compounds

Oh! Can I Keep Some Succinate For Myself?”:

  • Oxaloacetate
  • Citrate
  • Isocitrate
  • Ketoglutarate
  • Succinyl coA
  • Succinate
  • Fumarate
  • Malate

Citric acid cycle compounds

Our CitIs Kept Safe And Sound From Malice”:

  • Oxaloacetate
  • Citrate
  • Isocitrate
  • alpha-Ketoglutarate
  • Succinyl-CoA
  • Succinate
  • Fumarate
  • Malate

Citric acid cycle compounds

Can I Ask Sharon Stone For MOrgasm?”:

  • Citrate
  • Isocitrate
  • Alpha-Ketoglutarate
  • Succinyl CoA
  • Succinate
  • Fumerate
  • Maleate
  • Oxaloacetate

Dicarboxylic acids (alpha, omega) C2 through C10: common names

OMy, Such Good Apple Pie, Sweet ASugar!”:

  • Oxalic
  • Malonic
  • Succinic
  • Glutaric
  • Adipic
  • Pimelic
  • Suberic
  • Azelaic
  • Sebacic

Galactosaemia: enzyme deficiency


Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyl Transferase.

There is an assay called the Galiput test for this.

Hyperglycemia: 3 classic signs and symptoms


  • Dehydrated
  • Ketoacidosis
  • Acetone breath

Collagen concisely covered


  • C-terminal propeptide (procollagen)/ Covalent Cross links/ vitamin/ Connective tissue/ Cartilage/ Chondroblasts/ Copper Cofactor (Covalent Cross linking)
  • Outside the cell is where collagen normally functions/ Osteoblasts/ Osteogenesis imperfecta
  • Lysyl hydroxylase/ Lysyl oxidase (oxidatively deaminates lysyl and hydroxylysyl residues to form collagen cross links, last biosynthesis step)
  • Long triple helical fibers/ Ligaments
  • Alpha chains/ Attached by H bonds form triple helix/ Ascorbate for hydroxylation of lysyl and prolyl residues of pro-Alpha chains (postranslational modification)
  • Gly in every third position/ Glycosylation of hydroxyl group of hydroxylysine with Glucose and Galactose; GOlgi allows procollagen to GO outside of cell
  • Extracellular matrix/ Eye (cornea, sclera)/ Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
  • N-terminal propeptide (procollagen)/ Nonhelical terminal extensions

Note: Procollagen LEAVEs the cell to be cLEAVEd by procollagen peptidases

G6PD: oxidant drugs inducing hemolytic anemia


  • Antibiotic (eg: sufamethoxazole)
  • Antimalarial (eg: primaquine)
  • Antipyretics (eg: acetanilid, but not aspirin or acetaminophen)

Carbon monoxide: electron transport chain target

“CO blocks CO”:

Carbon monoxide (CO) blocks Cytochrome Oxidase (CO) 

Electron transport chain: Rotenone’s site of action

Rotenone is a site specific inhibitor of complex one.

Malate-aspartate shuttle

MAD commute”:

Malate in.

Alpha-ketoglutarate and (Aspartate) out.


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